Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference

 DN 22

PTS: D ii 290

We have added footnotes to this text with more in-depth explanations , and we really encourage you not to skip them. They contain a lot of understanding that is very important to have when reading or listening to a teaching such as this. It’s important to remember that in this context, the Buddha was speaking to people who were already monks and had already renounced the world – and who were already familiar with his fundamental teachings. One should not neglect taking the time to really understand these fundamental things – in this practice, developing right understanding comes before all. It is more important than sitting down to meditate.

I have heard that at one time the Blessed One was staying in the Kuru country. Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma. There the Blessed One spoke to the monks, “Bhikkhus.”

“Venerable sir,” the monks replied.

The Blessed One said this: “This is the one and only way for the purification of beings, the one and only way for the true end of all sadness and crying. The one and only way to finish pain & suffering, to walk the path of the noble ones, & to see Nibbana. This one and only way is the practice of the four Satipatthanas, or meditations.

What are these four ways of meditation? Bhikkus, in this, the one following my teaching lives in awareness of the body, seeing the body as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all wishes and sorrows for life in this world.

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of vedana, seeing vedana as it is (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable and how emotions are born from them) with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all wishes and sorrows for life in this world.

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of the mind, seeing the mind as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all wishes and sorrows for life in this world.

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of a specific Dhamma, seeing it as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all wishes and sorrows for life in this world.

A. Body

And how does a bhikkhu live in awareness of the body, seeing the body as it is?

1.     Breath (Anapana)

In this, a bhikkhu following my teaching  goes to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building —and there he sits down cross-legged, holding his body upright and directing his attention inside, to the location of the mind. With intention, he breathes in; with intention, he breathes out.

“When breathing in long, he knows before he will breath in long; when breathing out long, he knows before he will breathe out long. When breathing in short, he knows before he will breathe in short; or breathing out short, he knows before he will breathe out short.

He trains himself to observe the whole body with each inhale. He trains himself to observe the whole body with each exhale.

He practices so that the intention for breathing in becomes quiet by itself. He practices so that the intention for breathing out becomes quiet by itself.

 Just as a skilled wood-turner, or his student, when he is making a long turn, he knows before he is going to make a long turn, and when making a short turn, he knows before he will make a short turn, in the same way, when breathing in long, the Bhikkhu knows that he will breath in long; when breathing out long, he knows he will breathe out long. When breathing in short, he knows he will breathe in short; or breathing out short, he knows he will breathe out short.

He trains himself to observe the whole body with each inhale. He trains himself to observe the whole body with each exhale.

He practices so that the intention for breathing in becomes quiet (by itself). He practices so that the intention for breathing out becomes quiet (by itself).

And just this practice of observation of the body is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of what is the origin of the body, and what is the death and decaying of the body. There arises the awareness of the origin and the death of the body. And, with Right Knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

2. Intention of body movement.

And again, bhikkhus, when a bhikkhu walks, he knows before he walks. (He knows the intention of walking, how the mind gives the order to the body to move.) When he stands, he knows before when he stands. When he sits, he knows he is going to sit before he sits. When he lies down, he knows he is going to lie down before he lies down. Whatever movement or position his body takes, he knows it before.[1]

Again, when he moves forward, and when he moves backward, he knows it before he makes the movement. When he looks straight ahead, and when he looks sideways, he knows it before he makes the movement. When he bends and stretches his arms and legs, he knows before he makes the movement. When he carries his outer cloak, his upper robe and his bowl, he knows before he makes the movement. When he eats, drinks, chews, and swallows, he knows before he makes each movement. When he urinates and defecates, he knows before he makes the movement. When he walks, stands, sits, falls asleep, talks and stays silent, he is aware of the intention to do each action before it happens.[2]

And just this practice of observation of the body is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of what is the origin of the body, and there arises the awareness of what is the death and decaying of the body. There arises the awareness of the origin and the death of the body. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

 3. Asupa (Impurity of the body)

“And again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu looks at and examines closely this very body exactly as it is, from the soles of the feet up, and from the tips of the hair down, covered with skin and full of unclean and unpleasant things: Here in this body, there is head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, meat, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, membranes, spleen, lungs, large intestine, small intestine, whatever is in the stomach bag, faeces, brain, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, liquid fat, saliva, mucus, oil-of the joints, urine.

Just as if there were a bag with a hole at either end, and full of all kinds of grain: wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice; and a man with clear sight were to open it, he would examine it and look at it and see as it is everything that is inside it: “Here is wheat, here is rice, here are mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice.” In exactly the same way, bhikkhus, a monk looks at and examines this body as nothing but a bag with holes at both ends, a thing covered in skin and full of all kinds of unclean and unpleasant things: Here in this body, there is head hair, body hair, nails, teeth, skin, meat, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, membranes, spleen, lungs, large intestine, small intestine, whatever is in the stomach bag, faeces, brain, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, liquid fat, saliva, mucus, oil-of the joints, urine.

And just this practice of observation of the body is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of what is the origin of the body, and there arises the awareness of what is the death and decaying of the body. There arises the awareness of the origin and the death of the body. And, with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.  

4. Main Elements

And again, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu looks at and examines this body – whatever kind of body it is, as being made up of nothing more than four main elements: this body is built out of the element of earth, the element of water, the element of heat, and the element of air.

Just as if a skilled butcher, or his student, having killed a cow, were to sit at a crossroads cutting it into sections, the bhikkhu examines this body, seeing that whatever kind of body it is, it is made up of nothing more than four main elements: this body is built out of the element of earth, the element of water, the element of heat, and the element of air.

And just this practice of observation of the body is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of what is the origin of the body, and there arises the awareness of what is the death and decaying of the body. There arises the awareness of the origin and the death of the body. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

 5. Corpses

 “And again, seeing a body thrown away in a burial ground — one day, two days, three days dead — swollen, turning black and blue, & rotting, he turns this sight inward and applies it to his own body, ‘This body here too: this is its nature! This is what happens to it! It cannot escape turning into this.”

“Or again, seeing a corpse thrown away in a burial ground, picked at by crows, vultures, & hawks, by dogs, hyenas, & being eaten by many kinds of worms, he turns this sight inward and applies it to his own body, ‘This body here too: This is its nature! This is what happens to it! It cannot escape turning into this.”

Again, seeing a skeleton with meat & blood still sticking to it, connected with tendons, or a skeleton with no more meat but still with blood sticking to it, connected with tendons, or a skeleton without meat or blood, connected with tendons, or bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions –  here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a breast bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull – then too he turns it inward and applies it to his own body, ‘This body here too: This is its nature! This is what happens to it! It cannot escape turning into this.” Seeing the bones whitened, like the color of shells, seeing them piled up, more than a year old, seeing them decomposed into nothing but a powder: then too he turns it inward and applies it to his own body, ‘This body here too: This is its nature! This is what happens to it! It cannot escape turning into this.”

And just this practice of observation of the body is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of what is the origin of the body, and there arises the awareness of what is the death and decaying of the body. There arises the awareness of the origin and the death of the body. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

 B. Vedana

How, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live in awareness of vedana, seeing vedana as it is (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable and how emotions are born from them)

When there is agreeable feeling from the six sense-doors (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind), the bhikkhu knows it and watches how it is formed.[3] When there is disagreeable feeling from six-sense-door, he knows it and watches how it is formed. When there is neutral feeling, neither agreeable nor disagreeable, from six-sense-doors, he knows it and watches how it is formed.[4]

And just this practice of observation of vedana is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing will arise. There arises the awareness of how vedana is born, and of how vedana dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of vedana. And, with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.  

 C. Mind

“And how does a bhikkhu live in awareness of the mind, seeing the mind as it is? In this, a monk sees “desire, pleasure, enjoyment (lobha)” whenever it arises in the mind, he knows it as it arises. When the mind is free from desire/pleasure/enjoyment, he sees and knows that it is free from desire, pleasure or enjoyment. When anger (dosa)[5] is in the mind, he sees and knows it, as it arises. When the mind is free from anger (dosa) he sees and knows that it is free from anger. When the mind is not aware, acting automatically (moha), he realises and sees that the mind was not aware, acting automatically (moha). When the mind is not acting automatically, but fully aware, he sees and knows that the mind is not acting automatically, but fully aware.[6]

When there is boredom and disinterest in the mind, he sees and knows that it is boredom and disinterest in the mind. When the mind is restless and agitated, he sees and knows that the mind is restless and agitated. When the mind is held in check (like a dog held on a leash), he knows that the mind is held in check. When the mind wants to run everywhere, he knows that the mind wants to run everywhere. When the mind is in a higher state (concentration, joy), he knows that the mind is in a higher state. When the mind is not in a higher state, he knows that the mind is not in a higher state. When the mind is in a lowly and unworthy state (impure thoughts)[7], he knows that it is in a lowly and unworthy state. When the mind is in a worthy state (good, pure thoughts, intentions of generosity and compassion, empathy, sympathy, donation, helping), he sees and knows that it is in a worthy state. When the mind is concentrated, he sees and knows that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he sees and knows that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released (at level of arahant), he sees and knows that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he sees and knows that the mind is not released.

And just this practice of observation of the mind is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how the mind is born, and of how the mind dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of the mind. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

D. (Dhamma)

“And with Dhamma, how does a monk live in awareness of Dhamma, seeing a specific Dhamma[8] as it is?

1. Five Enemies

 “In this, there are Dhammas, and this meditation is to observe the Dhamma as it is. The Bhikkhu following my teaching lives in awareness of the Dhamma of the five enemies. And how does the bhikkhu live in awareness of the dhamma of the five enemies?

In this, when there is desire for sensuality/sexuality inside, the monk realises it: “There is desire for sensuality/sexuality inside,”  and cuts it off at the moment it is seen.[9] When there is no desire for sensuality/sexuality inside, the monk knows, is aware, “There is no desire for sensuality/sexuality inside.” When sensual/sexual desire begins to arise where it was not there before, he observes it and cuts it off as soon as there is contact with object of desire (inside or outside)[10].  When sensual/sexual desire is abandoned and given up, he knows and sees that it is given up and abandoned. When it has been given up and abandoned, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, when there is anger (dosa) inside, the monk realises it: “There is anger inside!” and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. When there is no anger inside, the monk knows, is aware, “There is no anger inside.” When anger begins to arise where it was not there before, he sees it as it begins to arise and, as soon as there is contact with object of anger (inside or outside), he cuts it off. When anger is abandoned and given up, he knows and sees that it is given up, abandoned, uprooted. When it has been given up and abandone, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, when there is doubt inside, the monk realises it: “There is doubt inside!” and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. When there is no doubt inside, the monk knows, is aware, “There is no doubt inside.” When doubt  begins to arise where it was not there before, he sees it as it begins to arise and, as soon as there is contact with object of doubt (inside or outside), cuts it off. When doubt is abandoned and given up, he knows and sees that it is given up and abandoned. When it has been given up and abandoned, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, when there is agitation/anxiety/restlessness inside, the monk realises it: “There is agitation/anxiety/restlessness inside!” and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. When there is no agitation/anxiety/restlessness inside, the monk knows, is aware, “There is no agitation/anxiety/restlessness inside.” When agitation/anxiety/restlessness/ begins to arise where it was not there before, he sees it as it begins to arise and, as soon as there is contact with object of agitation (inside or outside), cuts it off.  When agitation/anxiety/restlessness is abandoned and given up, he knows and sees that it is given up and abandoned. When it has been given up and abandoned, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, when there is sleepiness[11]/laziness/boredom inside, the monk realises it: “There is sleepiness/laziness/boredom inside!” and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. When there is no sleepiness/laziness/boredom inside, the monk knows, is aware, “There is no sleepiness/laziness/boredom inside.” When sleepiness/laziness/boredom begins to arise where it was not there before, he sees it as it begins to arise and right away cuts it off. When sleepiness/laziness/boredom is abandoned and given up, he knows and sees that it is given up and abandoned. When it has been given up and abandoned, he knows and sees, is aware that it will not arise again.

And just this practice of observation of the dhamma is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how this dhamma is born, and of how this dhamma dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of this dhamma. And, with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

 2. Five Aggregates

 “Again, there are Dhammas, and this meditation is to observe the Dhamma as it is. The Bhikkhu following my teaching lives in awareness of the Dhamma of the five aggregates or groups of attachments. And how does the bhikkhu observe the dhamma of the five groups of attachments?

In this, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu is aware that: this is body (physical matter, inside this body and outside it); this is how it is formed/made/born, this is how the body changes and dies. This is vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable and the emotions that are born from them); this is how vedana is formed/made/born, this is how vedana changes and dies away. This is memory (sañña), this is how memory is formed/made/born, this is how memory changes and dies away. This is thought and intention (sankhara), this is how thought and intention is formed/made/born, this is how thought and intention changes and dies away. This is awareness/knowing at six-sense-door (viññana); this is how awareness/knowing at the six-sense-door is born/made/formed, and this is how awareness at the six sense door changes and dies.

And just this practice of observation of the dhamma is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how this dhamma is born, and of how this dhamma dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of this dhamma. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.

 3. Ayatana (Six Sense doors and six sense objects)

 “Again, there are Dhammas, and this meditation is to observe the Dhamma as it is. The Bhikkhu following my teaching lives in awareness of the Dhamma of the six sense doors and the six sense objects. And how does the bhikkhu observe the dhamma of the six sense doors, and the six sense objects?

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: the eye and forms and shapes made of colour and light. He sees the place where the eye and colour and light touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the eye and forms and shapes made of colour and light. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa[12] that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is completely uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: ear and sound. He sees the place where ear and sound touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the ear and sound. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: nose and smell. He sees the place where nose and smell touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the nose and smell. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: tongue and flavour/texture (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, astringent, heat/cold, soft/hard, pressure, tickling). He sees the place where tongue and flavour/texture touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the tongue and flavour/texture. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: the body and physical sensation (heat/cold, soft/hard, pressure, tickling). He sees the place where the body and physical sensation touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the body and physical sensation. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

Again, the bhikkhu following my teaching sees, puts his attention on: the mind, and thoughts, ideas and memories. He sees at the place where the mind and the thought touch, he sees the kilesa that arises dependent on the mind and thought/idea/memory. He knows and sees the arising of a kilesa that was not there before, and cuts it off at the moment it is seen. He sees and knows when the kilesa is uprooted. When it has been given up and uprooted, he knows and sees that it will not arise again.

And just this practice of observation of the dhamma is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how this dhamma is born, and of how this dhamma dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of this dhamma. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached.  

 4. Seven Factors for seeing Dhamma (Awakening, becoming Arya, one of the Noble Ones)

 “Again, there are Dhammas, and this meditation is to observe the Dhamma as it is. The Bhikkhu following my teaching lives in awareness of the Dhamma of the seven factors for seeing Dhamma. And how does the bhikkhu observe the dhamma of the seven factors for seeing Dhamma?

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has Sati (maha-sati, awareness at the six-sense-door) he knows it. When he does not have Sati, he knows he does not have it. When Sati begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has analytical mind he knows it. When he does not have analytical mind[13], he knows he does not have it. When analytical mind begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has effort and energy he knows it. When he does not have effort and energy[14], he knows he does not have it. When effort and energy begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has joy (piti)[15] he knows it. When he does not have joy (piti), he knows he does not have it. When joy (piti) begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has calm/quiet of mind[16] he knows it. When he does not have calm/quiet, he knows he does not have it. When calm/quiet begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has concentration he knows it. When he does not have concentration, he knows he does not have it. When concentration begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

In this, bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu has equanimity[17] he knows it. When he does not have equanimity, he knows he does not have it. When equanimity begins to arise, he sees that it has started to arise. When it is developed, he knows that it is developed and perfected.

And just this practice of observation of the dhamma is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how this dhamma is born, and of how this dhamma dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of this dhamma. And, with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached. Through detachment, he is set free. Then with freedom comes the knowledge of freedom. Now he KNOWS he is free. He understands that he will never be born again, the aim is reached. He has finished with this body and mind.

 5. The Four Noble Truths

 “Again, there are Dhammas, and this meditation is to observe the Dhamma as it is. The Bhikkhu following my teaching lives in awareness of the Dhamma of the four noble truths. And how does the bhikkhu live in awareness of the dhamma of the four noble truths?

He works towards understanding suffering. He works towards understanding the cause of suffering. He works towards understanding the stopping of suffering. He works towards understanding the path leading to the stopping of suffering.”

[a] The Noble Truth of Dukkha (Suffering)

“Now what is the noble truth of suffering and pain? Birth is painful and suffering; aging is painful and suffering; death is painful and suffering; sadness, crying, physical pain, distress and hopelessness are painful and suffering; contact with what is disagreeable is painful and suffering; being away from what is agreeable is painful and suffering; not getting what you want is painful and suffering. In short, the five aggregates from which we make self are painful and suffering.

“And what is birth? All being born, having birth, arrival, coming-to-be, coming-out, appearance of the body and mind, & of the doors through which one senses the world – of the different beings in any world of beings – that is called birth.

“And what is aging? All aging, decaying, disintegrating, breaking down, graying, wrinkling, weakening of the energy of life, wearing out of the organs and faculties – of the different beings in any world of beings – that is called ageing.

“And what is death? All the shutting down, passing away, breaking up, disappearance, dying, death, finishing of time, break up of the aggregates, complete break-down of the body, cutting off of the life, of the different beings in any world of beings – that is called death.

“And what is sadness? All the sadness, sorrow, unhappiness, feeling unhappy, the ache of sorrow inside, the sadness felt by anyone suffering from an unhappy event, touched by a sorrowful thing, that is called sadness.

“And what is crying? All the crying, grieving, guilt and regret, shedding tears of sadness, weeping, wailing, crying of anyone suffering from an unhappy event, touched by a sorrowful thing, that is called crying.

“And what is physical pain? All that is felt as pain in the body, discomfort in the body, pain or discomfort born of contact at the body, that is called pain.

“And what is distress? All that is felt as pain of the mind, mental discomfort, pain or discomfort in the mind, worry, stress, fear; born of thoughts, ideas and memories in the mind, that is called distress.

“And what is hopelessness? Whatever despair, hopelessness, misery, desperation, abandoning of hope, of anyone suffering from an unhappy event, touched by a painful thing, that is called hopelessness.

“And what is the pain of contact with what you dislike? In this, there is contact with undesirable, unpleasant, disagreeable sights, sounds, smells, flavors, or physical sensations; or you have association, contact, relationship or conversation with those who are unkind towards you, who wish for your harm, who wish for your discomfort, who do not wish for your security. This is called the pain of contact with what you dislike.

“And what is the pain of being away from what you love? In this, there is no contact with desirable, pleasant, agreeable sights, sounds, smells, flavors, or physical sensations, or you have no association, no contact, no relationship and no conversation with those who wish you well, who wish for your happiness, who wish for your comfort, who wish for your security. Or, you have no contact with your mother, father, brothers, sisters, friends, companions or relatives. This is called the pain of being away from what you love.

“And what is the suffering of not getting what you want? In beings who are born, the wish can arise, “O, I wish I would not be born.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want. In beings who get old, the wish arises, “O, I wish that I would not get old.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want. In beings who die, there is the wish, “I wish I didn’t have to die.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. In beings who have sickness, the wish arises, “I wish I would not get sick.”(“Why me?”) But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want. In beings who have sadness, the wish arises, “I wish that sadness wouldn’t come to me.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the pain of not getting what you want. In beings who cry, there is the wish, “I don’t want to cry.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want.  In beings who have to have physical pain, there is the wish, “I don’t want to be in pain.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want. In beings who have distress, there is the wish, “I don’t want to be in distress and emotional suffering.” But this is not to be obtained by wishing for it. This is the suffering of not getting what you want.

“And what are the five aggregates to which one is attached, which one takes as self? Body (physical matter inside this body and outside it); to which we are attached, from which we make self; vedana (feelings of agreeable/disagreeable and the emotions that are born from them) to which we are attached and from which we make self; sañña (memory – the card of memory and the files of memory) to which we are attached, from which we make self; sankhara (thoughts and intentions) to which we are attached, from which we make self; viññana (awareness or knowing at the six-sense-doors) to which we are attached, from which we make self. These are the five aggregates to which one is attached, which one takes as self, that are painful and suffering.

“This is called the noble truth of pain and suffering.

[b] The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering

“And what is the noble truth of the cause of suffering?

The desire[18], craving, attachment, pleasure, that lights the spark for rebirth (bhava) — and, with pleasure and delight, enjoys and finds happiness in this existence, or in existence elsewhere. In other words, kammatanha (desire for six-sense-door pleasures), bhavatanha (the desire to exist), and vibhavatanha (the desire to not exist.)

“And bhikkhus, when this desire, craving, attachment arises, where does it arise? And when it sticks and stays, where does it stick? (And how is it formed, in what is it formed, where does it live?)

When desire, craving, and attachment arises, it arises with everything that is agreeable and pleasant in this world. And when it sticks and stays, it sticks and stays with all that is important to oneself and dear to oneself in this world.

And what is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world?

The eye

The eye is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the mind from the touch of the eye. And where one is attached, one is attached to the eye.

Forms and shapes made of colour and light is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of forms and shapes made of colour and light.

Cakkuvinnana (awareness or knowing at the eye) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of Cakkuvinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the eye.

Contact at the eye is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the eye (which is the meeting of the eye, forms and shapes made of colour and light, and awareness at the eye.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the eye.

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the eye is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the eye. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the eye.

Memory of forms or shapes born of contact at the eye is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of forms and shapes, born of contact at the eye. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of forms and shapes born of contact at the eye.

Intentions based on forms and shapes are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for forms and shapes). And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on forms and shapes.

Desire for forms and shapes made of colour and light is  important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for forms and shapes made of colour and light.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for forms and shapes made of colour and light.

Thinking about forms and shapes is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about forms and shapes. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about forms and shapes.

Judgement ( calculation) and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of forms and shapes made of colour and light. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light,   judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light   

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of forms and shapes made of colour and light is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of forms and shapes made of colour and light. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of forms and shapes made of colour and light, one makes self in the pursuit of forms and shapes made of colour and light.

The Ear

The ear is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the mind from the touch of the ear. And where one is attached, one is attached to the ear.

Sound is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of sound.

Sotavinnana (awareness or knowing at the ear) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of Sotavinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the ear.

Contact at the ear is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the ear (which is the meeting of the ear, sound, and awareness at the ear.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the ear.   

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the ear is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the ear. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the ear.   

Memory of sound born of contact at the ear is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of sound, born of contact at the ear. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of sound born of contact at the ear.   

Intentions based on sound are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for sound. And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on sound.

Desire for sound is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for sound.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for sound.   

Thinking about sound is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about sound. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about sound.

Judgement (kilesa calculation) and evaluation of sound is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of sound. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of sound.

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of sound is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of sound. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of sound, one makes self in the pursuit of sound.

The nose

The nose is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the mind from the touch of the nose. And where one is attached, one is attached to the nose.

Smell is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of smell.

Ghanavinnana (awareness or knowing at the nose) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of Ghanavinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the nose.

Contact at the nose is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the nose (which is the meeting of the nose, smell, and awareness at the nose.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the nose.

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the nose is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the nose. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the nose.

Memory of smell born of contact at the nose is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of smell, born of contact at the nose. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of smell born of contact at the nose.

Intentions based on smell are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for smell. And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on smell.

Desire for smell is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for smell.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for smell.   

Thinking about smell is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about smell. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about smell.

Judgement (kilesa calculation) and evaluation of smell is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of smell. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of smell.

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of smell is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of smell. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of smell, one makes self in the pursuit of smell.

The tongue

The tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the mind from the touch of the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to the tongue.  

Flavour/texture on the tongue (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, astringent; soft, hard, hot, cold, pressure, tickling) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of flavour/texture on the tongue.

Jihvavinnana (awareness or knowing at the tongue) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of Jihvavinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the tongue.

Contact at the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the tongue (which is the meeting of the tongue, flavour/texture on the tongue, and awareness at the tongue.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the tongue.   

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the tongue.   

Memory of flavour/texture on the tongue born of contact at the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of flavour/texture on the tongue, born of contact at the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of flavour/texture on the tongue born of contact at the tongue.

Intentions based on flavour/texture on the tongue are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for flavour/texture on the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on flavour/texture on the tongue.

Desire for flavour/texture on the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for flavour/texture on the tongue.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for flavour/texture on the tongue.   

Thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue.

Judgement (kilesa calculation) and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of flavour/texture on the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue.

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of flavour/texture on the tongue is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of flavour/texture on the tongue. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of flavour/texture on the tongue, one makes self in the pursuit of flavour/texture on the tongue.

The body

The body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the mind from the touch of the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to the body.  

Physical sensation on the body (heat, cold, soft, hard, pressure, tickling) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of physical sensation on the body.

Kayavinnana (awareness or knowing at the body) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of Kayavinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the body.   

Contact at the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the body (which is the meeting of the body, physical sensation on the body, and awareness at the body.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the body.

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the body.   

Memory of physical sensation on the body born of contact at the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of physical sensation on the body, born of contact at the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of physical sensation on the body born of contact at the body.

Intentions based on physical sensation on the body are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for physical sensation on the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on physical sensation on the body.

Desire for physical sensation on the body is  important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for physical sensation on the body.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for physical sensation on the body.

Thinking about physical sensation on the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about physical sensation on the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about physical sensation on the body.

Judgement (kilesa calculation) and evaluation of physical sensation on the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of physical sensation on the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of physical sensation on the body.

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of physical sensation on the body is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of physical sensation on the body. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of physical sensation on the body, one makes self in the pursuit of physical sensation on the body.

The mind

The mind is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in the touch of the mind. And where one is attached, one is attached to the mind.  

thoughts, ideas and memories is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born, in the mind, with the touch of thoughts, ideas and memories. And where one is attached, one is attached to the thoughts, ideas and memories.  

Manovinnana (awareness or knowing at the mind) is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from the touch of manovinnana. And where one is attached, one is attached to the awareness or knowing at the mind.   

Contact at the mind is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from contact at the mind (which is the meeting of the mind, thoughts, ideas and memories, and awareness at the mind.) And where one is attached, one is attached to the contact at the mind,   contact at the mind   

Vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the mind is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from vedana (agreeable and disagreeable feelings) born of contact at the mind. And where one is attached, one is attached to the vedena born of contact at the mind.

Memory of thoughts, ideas and memories (making forms or shapes) born of contact at the mind is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born from memory of thoughts, ideas and memories, born of contact at the mind. And where one is attached, one is attached to the memory of thoughts, ideas and memories born of contact at the mind.

Intentions based on thoughts, ideas and memories are important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with intentions for thoughts, ideas and memories. And where one is attached, one is attached to intentions based on thoughts, ideas and memories.

Desire for thoughts, ideas and memories is  important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born in desire for thoughts, ideas and memories.  And where one is attached, one is attached to desire for thoughts, ideas and memories.   

Thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it is born with thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories. And where one is attached, one is attached to thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories.

Judgement (kilesa calculation) and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it brings up judgement and evaluation (kilesa calculation) of thoughts, ideas and memories. And where one is attached, one is attached to judgement and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories.

“Pursuit (Calculate => investigate, get information => now you go for it. Now you are running for it, you have an aim) of thoughts, ideas and memories is important for oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is born, it gives rise to the pursuit of thoughts, ideas and memories. And where one is attached, one is attached to the pursuit of thoughts, ideas and memories.

“This is called the noble truth of the cause of pain and suffering.

[c] The Noble Truth of the ending of suffering

 “And what is the noble truth of how pain and suffering is stopped? It is the renunciation, giving up, letting go, the fading away and dying out, and complete ending of that very desire, craving and attachment, so that there is nothing left of it whatsoever.

And bhikkhus, when this desire, craving, attachment is given up, where is it given up? And when it ends completely, where does it end completely?

With all that is dear and loved in this world, with all that is pleasant and agreeable in this world: when you give up desire, craving and attachment, it is given up for all this. When it ends completely, it is ended for all this.

The eye is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the eye, it can no longer arise with the touch of the eye. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the eye, there is no more self in the eye.

Forms and shapes made of colour and light is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of forms and shapes made of colour and light, it can no longer arise with the touch of forms and shapes made of colour and light. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the objects of forms and shapes made of colour and light.

Cakkuvinnana (awareness or knowing at the eye) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the eye, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the eye. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the eye, there is no more self in the awareness or knowing at the eye.

Contact at the eye (the meeting of the eye, forms and shapes made of colour and light and awareness at the eye)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the eye, it can no longer arise from contact at the eye. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the eye, there is no more self in the contact at the eye.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the eye is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the eye, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the eye. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the eye, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the eye.

Memory born of contact at the eye is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the eye, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the eye. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the eye, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the eye.

Intentions based on forms and shapes made of colour and light are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for forms and shapes made of colour and light, it is removed from intentions for forms and shapes made of colour and light. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for forms and shapes made of colour and light, there is no more self in the intentions for forms and shapes made of colour and light. 

Desire itself for forms and shapes made of colour and light is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for forms and shapes made of colour and light, it is totally disabled for the object of forms and shapes made of colour and light.

Thinking about forms and shapes made of colour and light is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about forms and shapes made of colour and light, it is not there in thinking about forms and shapes made of colour and light. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about forms and shapes made of colour and light, there is no more self in the thinking about forms and shapes made of colour and light. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for forms and shapes made of colour and light is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of forms and shapes made of colour and light. 

The ear is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the ear, it can no longer arise with the touch of the ear.  When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the ear, there is no more self in the ear.

Sound is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of sound, it can no longer arise with the touch of sound. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the object of sound, there is no more self in the object of sound.

Sotavinnana (awareness or knowing at the ear) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the ear, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the ear. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the ear, there is no more self in the awareness or knowing at the ear.

Contact at the ear (the meeting of the ear, sound and awareness at the ear)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the ear, it can no longer arise from contact at the ear. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the ear, there is no more self in the contact at the ear.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the ear is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the ear, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the ear. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the ear, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the ear.

Memory born of contact at the ear is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the ear, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the ear. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the ear, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the ear.

Intentions based on sound are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for sound, it is removed from intentions for sound. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for sound, there is no more self in the intentions for sound. 

Desire for sound is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for sound, it is totally disabled for the object of sound.

Thinking about sound is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about sound, it is not there in thinking about sound. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about sound, there is no more self in the thinking about sound. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for sound is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of sound, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of sound. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of sound, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of sound. 

The nose is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the nose, it can no longer arise with the touch of the nose.  When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the nose, there is no more self in the nose.

Smell is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of smell, it can no longer arise with the touch of smell. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the object of smell, there is no more self in the object of smell.

Ghanavinnana (awareness or knowing at the nose) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the nose, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the nose. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the nose, there is no more self in the awareness or knowing at the nose.

Contact at the nose (the meeting of the nose, smell and awareness at the nose)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the nose, it can no longer arise from contact at the nose. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the nose, there is no more self in the contact at the nose.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the nose is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the nose, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the nose. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the nose, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the nose.

Memory born of contact at the nose is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the nose, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the nose. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the nose, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the nose.

Intentions based on smell are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for smell, it is removed from intentions for smell. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for smell, there is no more self in the intentions for smell. 

Desire itself for smell is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for smell, it is totally disabled for the object of smell.

Thinking about smell is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about smell, it is not there in thinking about smell. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about smell, there is no more self in the thinking about smell. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for smell is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of smell, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of smell. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of smell, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of smell. 

The tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the tongue, it can no longer arise with the touch of the tongue.  When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the tongue, there is no more self in the tongue.

Flavour/texture on the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of flavour/texture on the tongue, it can no longer arise with the touch of flavour/texture on the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the object of flavour/texture on the tongue.

Jihvavinnana (awareness or knowing at the tongue) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the tongue, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the tongue, there is no more self in the awareness or knowing at the tongue.

Contact at the tongue (the meeting of the tongue, flavour/texture on the tongue and awareness at the tongue)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the tongue, it can no longer arise from contact at the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the tongue, there is no more self in the contact at the tongue.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the tongue, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the tongue, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the tongue.

Memory born of contact at the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the tongue, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the tongue, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the tongue.

Intentions based on flavour/texture on the tongue are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for flavour/texture on the tongue, it is removed from intentions for flavour/texture on the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for flavour/texture on the tongue, there is no more self in the intentions for flavour/texture on the tongue. 

Desire for flavour/texture on the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for flavour/texture on the tongue, it is totally disabled for the object of flavour/texture on the tongue.

Thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue, it is not there in thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue, there is no more self in the thinking about flavour/texture on the tongue. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for flavour/texture on the tongue is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of flavour/texture on the tongue. 

The body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the body, it can no longer arise with the touch of the body.  When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the body, there is no more self in the body.

physical sensation on the body on the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of physical sensation on the body on the body, it can no longer arise with the touch of physical sensation on the body on the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the object of physical sensation on the body on the body.

Kayavinnana (awareness or knowing at the body) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the body, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the body, there is no more self in the awareness or knowing at the body.

Contact at the body (the meeting of the body, physical sensation on the body on the body and awareness at the body)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the body, it can no longer arise from contact at the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the body, there is no more self in the contact at the body.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the body, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the body, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the body.

Memory born of contact at the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the body, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the body, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the body.

Intentions based on physical sensation on the body on the body are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for physical sensation on the body on the body, it is removed from intentions for physical sensation on the body on the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for physical sensation on the body on the body, there is no more self in the intentions for physical sensation on the body on the body. 

Desire for physical sensation on the body on the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for physical sensation on the body on the body, it is totally disabled for the object of physical sensation on the body on the body.

Thinking about physical sensation on the body on the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about physical sensation on the body on the body, it is not there in thinking about physical sensation on the body on the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about physical sensation on the body on the body, there is no more self in the thinking about physical sensation on the body on the body. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for physical sensation on the body on the body is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of physical sensation on the body on the body, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of physical sensation on the body on the body. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of physical sensation on the body on the body, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of physical sensation on the body on the body. 

The mind is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of the mind, it can no longer arise with the touch of the mind.  When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the mind, there is no more self with the mind.

Thoughts, ideas and memories are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled at the touch of thoughts, ideas and memories, it can no longer arise with the touch of thoughts, ideas and memories. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the object of thoughts, ideas and memories, there is no more self in the thoughts, ideas and memories.

Kayavinnana (awareness or knowing at the mind) is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in awareness or knowing at the mind, it can no longer arise from awareness or knowing at the mind. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted,  there is no more attachment to the awareness or knowing at the mind, there is no more self with the awareness or knowing at the mind.

Contact at the mind (the meeting of the mind, thoughts, ideas and memories and awareness at the mind)  is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in contact at the mind, it can no longer arise from contact at the mind. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to contact at the mind, there is no more self in the contact at the mind.

Vedana (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable) born of contact at the mind is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in vedana born of contact at the mind, no longer arising from vedana born of contact at the mind. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, it no longer sticks to the vedana born of contact at the mind, there is no more self in the vedana born of contact at the mind.

Memory born of contact at the mind is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in memory born of contact at the mind, it can no longer arise from memory born of contact at the mind. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to memory born of contact at the mind, there is no more self in the memory born of contact at the mind.

Intentions based on thoughts, ideas and memories are important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in intentions for thoughts, ideas and memories, it is removed from intentions for thoughts, ideas and memories. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the intentions for thoughts, ideas and memories, there is no more self in the intentions for thoughts, ideas and memories. 

Desire itself for thoughts, ideas and memories is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world. When desire, craving and attachment is stopped, there is no more desire for thoughts, ideas and memories, it is totally disabled for the object of thoughts, ideas and memories.

Thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories, it is not there in thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories, there is no more self in the thinking about thoughts, ideas and memories. 

Judgement and evaluation (analytical mind) for thoughts, ideas and memories is important to oneself, dear to oneself in this world, When desire, craving and attachment is uprooted, it is disabled in judgement and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories, there is no trace of desire in judgement and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories. When desire, craving and attachment is given up and uprooted, there is no more attachment to the judgement and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories, there is no more self in the judgement and evaluation of thoughts, ideas and memories. 

This is called the noble truth of how suffering comes to an end.

 [d] The Noble Eightfold Path

 “And what is the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the ending of suffering? Just this very noble eightfold path: right understanding (and right view), right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right awareness (sati), right concentration.

“And what is right understanding and right view? Understanding of what is suffering, understanding of what is the cause of suffering, understanding of how suffering stops and comes to an end, understanding of what is the path leading to the ending of suffering. This is called right understanding.[19]

“And what is right thought (right intention, right attitude) (sammāsaṅkappo)? Thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of compassion free from anger, thoughts of not harming. This is called right thought, right intention, right attitude.

“And what is right speech? Not lying, not speaking to divide others, not speaking to abuse, not backbiting, not gossiping, not chatting, not speaking what is useless, talking just to talk. This is right speech.

“And what is right action? Not killing, not stealing, not engaging in sexual misconduct. This is called right action.

“And what is right livelihood?In this, a student of the noble ones, having given up wrong or dishonest livelihood[20], maintains himself with right livelihood: This is called right livelihood.

“And what is right effort?[21] In this, a monk wakes up energy, determination and effort, keeps the flame alive, maintains the drive he has inside, and pushes himself, to prevent the wrong, harmful and ugly thoughts that have not yet arisen in him from arising. (i.e. mulching.)  He wakes up energy, determination and effort, keeps the flame alive, maintains the drive he has inside and pushes himself, to drop the wrong, harmful and ugly thoughts[22] that have arisen in him (i.e. weeding) ; he wakes up energy, determination and effort, keeps the flame alive, maintains the drive he has inside and pushes himself for the sake of bringing forth good and helpful qualities[23] that he does not have (i.e. grafting/ planting); and he keeps his effort, flame, energy and keeps pushing himself to grow, develop, increase, make clear and bring to perfection the good and helpful qualities that he has. (i.e. pruning, fertilising.) This is called right effort and energy.

“And what is right awareness/ attention/ sati? In this, the one following my teaching lives in awareness of the body, seeing the body as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all desire and sorrow for life in this world. (loke)

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of vedana, seeing vedana as it is (feelings of agreeable and disagreeable and how emotions are born from them) with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all desire and sorrow for life in this world. (loke)

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of the mind, seeing the mind as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all desire and sorrow for life in this world. (loke)

The bhikkhu lives in awareness of a specific Dhamma as it is, with constant effort, attention and awareness, dropping all desire and sorrow for life in this world. (loke)

 This is called right sati or awareness.

“And what is right concentration (one-pointedness of mind, mind is one with object of meditation)? When the mind becomes very concentrated, when one has renounced and dropped the kilesa of sensuality, dropped the thoughts and desires of the world, then there are four stages of concentration. First is joy with thinking. Second stage is joy with calm silent mind, no thinking. Third, the joy fades and there is equanimity with pleasant sensation on the body. Fourth is pure equanimity, no movement up and down of agreeable/disagreeable, no pleasure, no pain. This is called right concentration.

“This is called the noble truth of the path of practice leading to the end of suffering and pain.

And just this practice of observation of the dhamma is enough; if it is carried and perfected, pure knowledge and seeing of dhamma will arise. There arises the awareness of how this dhamma is born, and of how this dhamma dies away. There arises the awareness of the birth and the dying away of this dhamma. And with right knowledge and purified awareness, the monk lives not clinging to anything in this world, he is detached. Through detachment, he is set free. Then with freedom comes the knowledge of freedom. Now he KNOWS he is free. He understands that he will never be born again,, the aim is reached. He has finished with this world.

 E. Conclusion

“Now, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for seven years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

“Not even seven years. If anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for six years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

 Not even six years, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for five years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even five years, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for four years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even four years, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for three years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even three years, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for two years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even two years, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for one years, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even one year, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for seven months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even seven months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for six months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even six months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for five months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even five months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for four months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even four months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for three months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even three months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for two months, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even two months, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for one month, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even one month, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for half a month, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

Not even half a month, if anyone at all would practice these four ways of meditation in this way for seven days, one of two results can be expected for him: either complete release right here & now, or — if there is anything left of clinging, stickiness, attachment, desire — non-return.

“This is the one and only way for the purification of beings, for overcoming sadness & crying, to have no more pain & suffering, to walk the path of the noble ones, & to see Nibbana. This one and only way is the practice of the four Satipatthanas, or meditations. This was said, and it was said in regard to this.

That is what the Blessed One said. Full of joy, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.


[1] This means that you know the intention of each movement before it is made. You are watching the intention inside from the mind. A dog knows when he is walking that he is walking. A cat knows when he is lying down that he is lying down. This is different, it is to know the intention of the movement before the movement is made.

[2] It is important to understand that this “knowing before” is not just one time or a few actions before a few actions you want to do. It is awareness of how the mind is giving the order for each and all body movements throughout the day. It is constant awareness in the mind, choosing each action of the body. When eating, he knows before the hand goes to take the food from the plate, before the hand comes back to the mouth, before each movement of the mouth to chew, before the tongue moves the food from left to the right, before swallowing. When going to the toilet one should see the intention of undoing the zip before undoing the zip of the pants, or the intention of sitting down before sitting down, the intention of peeing before peeing. Taking shower the same – know before removing the clothes, know the intention of each movement that is needed to remove the shirt, know before opening the tap, before lifting the leg to get into the shower, before taking the soap, before putting shampoo in the hand, the intention of rubbing shampoo into the hair, the intention of each body movement in cleaning oneself, the intention of turning off the tap, the intention to step out of the shower. It is to this extent that one should know and be aware of the intention of all movements of the body. When you are watching in the mind so closely, there is simply no space for fear, anger, jealousy, love or hate to arise. You are sitting on the chair, nobody else can sit there.

[3]  Vedana (agreeable/disagreeable) is born at the place of contact (where there is the meeting of three things: e.g. ear, sound and consciousness at the ear.) It is not sensation on the body. It could come from contact with the mind: for example, the contact at the mind with a nice memory will cause an agreeable feeling; contact at the mind with an unpleasant memory will cause a disagreeable feeling. From vedana grow love and hate, greed and disgust, fear and relief, all kilesa: doubt, regret, jealousy, hatred…all are born from there.

[4]  Neutral feeling is very brief and always moves very fast to up or down, agreeable or disagreeable, meaning it is harder to see.

[5] “Dosa” includes all negative thoughts of harming, from a little frustration, irritation, grumpy, annoyance, impatience, complaining, going to anger, hatred, jealousy, fury, revengeful thoughts, hatred for race… everything in this category is the same “dosa” whether it is small or big. Anagami completely uproots dosa.

[6] Moha, Dosa and Lobha are the three drivers of wrong or immoral actions. “Dosa” is the easiest to translate: anger and hatred. (It’s not only “anger” or only “hatred” – it is both. Anger and hatred are different things, though related.)

Lobha – a word we might translate as “greed” “desire” “strong liking” or “desire for pleasure.” “Wanting more.” It includes sexual desire, the desire for food, any kind of emotion “wanting more.”

Moha is the hardest to translate. The definition that is the most accurate is “ The one who is in moha doesn’t know he is in moha.” We could use the phrase “in the cloud” for the one who is in moha. It is unawareness, unconsciousness, bewilderment, non-calculation – it is for the one who does actions on “automatic pilot”, the one who stirs salt into his coffee without realising that he picked up the wrong pot, the one who acts without wondering why he does the actions he does, who cannot explain why he thought it was the good thing to do. All carelessness, laziness, and negligence would fall into the category of moha.

[7] Thought of stinginess, anger, no caring, no empathy, not helping, complaining, lack of compassion, lack of friendliness, selfishness, greed for money, sex or food, jealousy, sadness, self-pity, pride, arrogance, showing-off, disrespect, careless, laziness, fault-finding, impatience, irritation…the list goes on.

[8] In addition to the main subjects in Dhamma named here, it can be a specific question or subject given for a student by a teacher, designed for the student. Examples: “Where is self?” “What makes a bird fly against the wind?”

[9] Cutting it off is inside, in the mind. It is with observation: when the sexual desire is observed, seeing it is to remove it. It is not control, to have fear of being in desire – to hide one’s eyes or try to avoid having contact with any object of desire, or to remove the eyes, or to be castrated or to cover women from head to toe not to have desire, or taking a cold shower – this is control. With this, the desire is not removed, it is just pushed down and kept hidden. It is still there. Here it is to observe and to cut it off where it is born, in the mind.

[10] Outside = sight/smell/sound of an object of sexual desire

Inside = thought/memory/idea of object of sexual desire.

[11] It should be understood that this does not include the feeling of tiredness that is normal when the body really needs sleep. For someone who meditates and doesn’t do a lot of physical work, six hours of sleep is generally the maximum that is needed; if there is heavy physical work, still 8 hours of sleep is generally enough. If one has slept enough, then sleepiness that is coming in meditation (or at any time) is an enemy.

[12] How kilesa are born is as follows: Vedana = agreeable/disagreeable created at the moment of contact => Kilesa = Like/Dislike, Love/Hate => fear, doubt, jealousy, anger, sexual desire, greed, cruelty, injustice, bigotry… In the absence of an english word that would perfectly describe the concept of any impurity of the mind, any wrong, ugly or selfish thought – anything at all born from desire or attachment – we prefer to use this word, “kilesa.”

[13] It means seeing, in everything, cause effect and condition – for example: in actions, in thoughts, in speech. Seeing them from every angle. Seeing what is their cause, what is behind them, what is the effect, what conditions does it create, what will happen if I say this, is it harmful for me, is it good for me, is it harmful for others, is it good for others, is it harmful for both, is it good for both? It is the quality of calculation, the quality of analysis of a subject, a quality, an emotion, an action, an idea or an event – seeing why it exists, what made it arise, what is linked with it, asking questions about it and answering them, understanding the heart of it. (In the aim and practice of GOOD! We are not talking about the mafia calculating how he will kill his next victim!)

[14] Understand that energy is hand to hand with EFFORT. It is not simply the physical energy of someone who can swim for several kilometres or run for several kilometres or climb Mount Everest. It is the effort to keep watching in meditation constantly, pushing and pushing, never ever giving up – for the one who has energy and effort awakened in him, the effort to watch the mind, and to remove the impure thoughts and emotions in himself, is like the breath or the heartbeat: as constant as that, as important as that, as essential as that; impossible to leave behind or neglect.

[15] Not the same as joy of meeting people you haven’t seen in years, or when you get a gift, or when you see a beautiful view, or when you get the best marks in an exam. When you remove a kilesa inside, particularly a big one, the joy arises from here, and it comes along with calm of mind.

[16]  While it is quite easy to have a certain calm when doing any meditation, just by force of repeating a mantra; this calm is of a different kind. Nor is it the absence of sound. It is from inside, and comes by itself when a big kilesa is removed – the joy arises, and afterwards the mind becomes calm. The calm can come in meditation and is a factor of seeing dhamma, but it’s also important to know that it is NOT the aim of the meditation.

[17] What does “equanimity” mean? Usually, in normal conditions, the mind is constantly constantly reacting to everything that touches, giving evaluation of everything he sees, touches, hears and senses: “good/bad,” “Love/Hate” “I like/ I don’t like.” In the state of equanimity, the mind stops reacting, stops giving evaluation, so that there is no more movement up or down, towards like or dislike, love or hate, pulling towards or pushing away. Instead he simply sees as it is. Cake is tasting sweet – so what? A colourful sunset is simply orange and red colour. So what? Beauty he sees as beauty but is not drawn to it, not in love with it – and ugliness he sees as ugliness but is not disgusted by it, not moved by any object in any way. It is not the disinterest in a particular object because you are bored with it! It is really when the mind is level, not reacting to anything at all.

[18] Desire is tip of a very extraordinarily big iceberg. It is in every second of every day, everything the eye touches, the ear touches, the nose, the tongue, the body and the mind touches, there is I like or I don’t like, I want or I don’t want. It is in negative and positive, it is the thing that drives all the movement of the world. The world turns on desire, wish, hope, wanting. It is the master to which we are enslaved.

[19] And what is wrong understanding? All ego, self, I am that we make with ideas, with body and mind, with our occupation, family, activities, all the “I am important, I am the centre of the universe” “Life is not suffering,” “the Body is good” “changing is good, not suffering,” beautification of the body, decoration of the body, “I am the body”  “I am permanent, death is a long, long way off,” All emphasis on long-life, trying to live forever, search for the holy grail, looking for medicines to cure all diseases, looking for ways to cure old age, genotherapy, deep freezing, alchemy, greed for money, no generosity, it is good to go for what I like, what I want, morality is outside in what you buy or what you eat, there is no right and wrong, attachment is good, attachment is what I love, fear is useful, anger is useful, suffering is part of what makes us human, we learn from mistakes, we learn from suffering, we grow from suffering. “Yum yum” in eating, sex, sensuality, whatever makes me feel calm and happy is good to do. Meditation on mantra, mediation on object outside, “we cannot change, we are as we are and we have to accept it,” Life is for enjoying, life is fun, interesting, not boring, “all the paths are good, they all lead to the top of the mountain” open relationship is non-attachment, one should not discipline children, they are free spirits and should be allowed to do whatever they want. Crying is good, sadness is beautiful. There is good and bad luck, magic charms, rite and ritual.

[20] Wrong or dishonest livelihood: one should not trade in animals, human beings, weapons or drugs or intoxicants: anything that is used for hurt and harm, or that causes hurt and harm.

[21]  Effort and energy is NON-STOP. It is not one time a day, or a couple of times a day, it is 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Keeping the flame of your fire alive all the time, this way you always have it and do not have to worry about going in the cold forest at night. Holding on to the string of your kite all the time.  No matter how many times you fall, you get up. Get up, get up, get up, get up. Again, again, again, again. Like the bear catching salmon after a long winter, starving hungry – if he misses once, he doesn’t give up! A baby doesn’t give up on learning how to walk if he falls one time! You keep going. A different way, another tactic, come from a different direction. Do not add kilesa (guilt, sadness, regret, depression, hatred towards yourself) on top, when you see you made a mistake, you just correct, correct, correct. Enormous energy, love, compassion, determination is needed for this work. It should not be a hard heavy chore, but a joy, the love of your life, the purpose of your life, the thing for which the life is lived.

[22] Thoughts of love and hate, of anger and kadjai, stinginess, sensual desire, greed, thoughts of laziness, going in the cloud, too loose, thoughts of controlling, too tight, heaviness, sadness, disappointment, stickiness to comfort zone – any thought or emotion that arises automatically and clouds the mind so that it is not clear.

[23] Generosity, morality, effort, renunciation, wisdom, honesty, determination, compassion, equanimity, patience, faith, courage.